2nd session and last session

In the second day intervention, which held on September 17,2018, there were only two activities, i.e. the listening of music and imagination writing of students.  These two activities were similar to the practices of the first day intervention but that day i only have a short time to so there was no any interview after the session. It took me only about an hour to complete the music listening session.

Students seemed to be more relaxed as we started to feel more comfortable getting to know each other. We moved to conference room where it was more quite to conduct an intervention and the room also have air conditioners so students can be fully at ease. They even asked me if they could lay down on the floor while listening to musics. I didn’t refuse that as I want to make them feel comfortable . It showed that they were very much relaxed . However, there were few of them started to playing each other while everyone listening to musics. The assistant teacher had to step up telling them to stop playing and to be more focused on the process. This showed that some of these students can lose their focus easily.

 

How did the third day of intervention go on?

The third day intervention hold on September 21, 2018.  I arrived at school at 1 as a usual.  Two parts of music session were conducted in the same ways as the previous two.

After the music session of this day was completed, I conducted the post-intervention test.  Again, the Anxiety Test as modified was used.

How did the in-depth interview of third day go on; what data I could collect from the interview?

Apart from the quantitative evaluation, there were in-depth interviews in the third day intervention.

As in-depth interview questions were relating to conditions of students who had participated in all phases of the intervention, they were reasonably different from those used in the first day intervention.  These questions include:

(1)       What are you worried about regarding to the class (if any)?

(2)       It your anxiety exists, do you think music can decrease it?

(3)       How does it make you feel while listening to music?

Again, I explained each question clearly and noted each answer by myself and comforted each student in organizing his answer. The followings were answers to the questions.

Omo

Omo told me that, with regarding the class, what he was worried about was math.  He felt he was sometimes stressed and hearing music could reduce stress.  It made him more comfortable and more encouraged although he felt math was still a hard subject.

Ball

Ball told me that only math that made him reasonably worried about and he felt stressed when he thought of it. He believed that his stress had been slightly relaxed when hearing music.  Music hearing made him feel encouraged. He believed hearing this kind of music for a period of time could keep him a way from stress and also could be useful for his personal life.

Pai

He told me he was worried about math which was very difficult. Math teachers were very kind but the subject content was complicate.  A lot of math homework were assigned to him and his friends.  Apart from math, there were nothing causing him stressed.  When hearing the music, he thought about math and class environments which makes him feel a bit stressed in a first part of the song but at the end of the song he felt more encouraged. He explained to me that it might be the rhythm of the song that makes him feel like that. He also felt that 20 minutes might be too long for him.

Hoke

He told me that what he was worried about was his math class. It was very difficult for him and his friends. It made him feel stressed which was reasonably reduced when hearing music. He believed that music hearing would make him strong enough to struggle with math.

Dan

Dan told me what he was worried about was math. Only math that made him stressed.  His stress might be slightly reduced by hearing this type of music. It was useful more than he thought. He felt more encouraged when hearing it.

Man

Man told me that he was worried about math. He felt less anxious when hearing music but he was not sure that music hearing could make him more concentrated. Any way, he felt more comfortable when hearing music.

Song

Song told me that he was rarely stressed. Even in the math class, he felt comfortable . He believed music hearing made him more concentrated.

Woody

Woody insisted that he was worried about nothing. He did not have any difficulty even in math class. He felt more encouraged when hearing music.

Tee

Tee told me what he was worried about was his math class.  He had to face voluminous homework assigned.  He was not worried about math teachers, who were very helpful and respectful.  He was worried only about the subject content of math.  He was reasonably encouraged by music hearing of to day.

Tua

As in the first day interview, Tua insisted that with regarding to math and other subjects, he was worried about nothing. He felt happy and more encouraged when hearing music.

After completion of the in-depth interview, I conducted a group discussion.

When I asked the whole group how did they feel for this intervention, all students said OK. Some said the room was comfortably cool and they wanted to join the event like this frequently. After informal chatting, I requested students to express their opinion freely. All seemed to to think that classical music can make them relaxed. Man was the only student who raised his hand and said that he was attending a math class as soon as the intervention ended. He told me to ask the school administrator to reduce math homework. He admitted that in sometime and to some extent, music hearing could reduce his math anxiety but he did think it could make him smart enough to get a good grade from his math teachers. Most participants were satisfied with his comment. Man’s enthusiastic participation could make the discussion more lively. They applauded for Man but no one further commented.

Before leaving, I talked with Miss Chanan and her assistant who told me that they both knew all students very well. I reminded them to observe symptoms of class anxiety of these students for the time span of two weeks and reported to me whether there were any changes after the intervention.

I spent more than two hours with students for the third day intervention

 

 

 

 

Analysis, Emphasis shift and Modified Question

What I learned from the intervention was more and more crystalized. The attention is one of the contributing factors of success in in school. To be successful, students have to have the ability to maintain attention for a specific task (Bringus, 2016, p.5).

As attention is a cognitive process, it can be impaired by anxiety symptoms (Perri, 2017). So, tools that can reduce students’ anxiety are directly helpful to their ability to maintain attention. Examples of behaviors indicating anxiety are “being impulsive, short-tempered, having difficulty starting classwork or planning ahead, and lacking ability to organize classwork” (Sherman, 2017, p 3).

Due to the critical importance of attention, many types of tools to reduce students’ anxiety and hence to help them maintain their attention are developed. An example of tools to reduce these behavior of American students is the Buddhist mindfulness practice which had been proved reasonable effective (Bringus, 2016; Perri, 2017; Sherman, 2017)

The idea to use classical music as a way to reduce students’ anxiety and hence to help them maintain attention seems relate to the concept of Mozart effect. This term first coined in 191 by Alfred A. Tomatis who used Mozart’s music as the listening stimulus to cure a variety of disorders. It was later interpreted that “listening to Mozart makes you smarter” (Mozart effect, n.d.). This interpretation is supported by researches that show an improvement in reading comprehension test performance when Mozart music was used (Chou, 2010, p.42). Also, it is suggested that listening to classical music, as well as other types of music, for a period of time can reduce depressing symptoms in adult population (Chan, Wong, and Thananya, 2011).

The research suggested me to look at classical music as a tool to help Thai secondary school students to maintain their attention in the class. Apart from that, I surveyed research on school pressure in general as hinted by the topic previously proposed. Found that the pressure most students were facing was attention in the class which was essential to school success. I also found that symptoms. Then I related the class anxiety to classical music which was interesting for me. Instead of studying student’s attention directly, I focused on student’s anxiety which indicated their attention and surveyed more research on school success and music for well-being.

As such, I had to narrow down my research topic earlier proposed: How can music support generationZ in managing pressure of school? My research as finalized emphasized the positive effects of classical music on attention of Thai secondary school students in the class.Therefore , my altered question is “How can classical music reinforce the attention of Thai secondary school students in the class?” 

Reference

Bringus, R. (2016) The effectiveness of mindfulness on students’ attention. Masters of Arts in Education Action Research Papers. St. Catherine University. Available at http://sophia.stkate.edu/maed/ 187 (Downloaded: 20 October 2018).

Chan, M.F., Wong, Z.Y., and Thayala, N.V. (2011) ‘The effectiveness of music listening in reducing depressive symptoms in adults: A systematic review’, Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 19 (6), pp. 332 – 348. Available at https://doi-org/10.1016./j.ctim2011.08.003 (Downloaded: 31 August 2018).

Chou, P.T. (2010) ‘Attention drainage effect: how background music effects concentration in Taiwanese college students’, Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(1), pp. 36 – 46.

‘Mozart effect’ (n.d.) Wikipedia. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozart_effect (Downloaded: 6 November 2018)

Perri, S.(2017) ‘The impact of a mindfulness-based intervention on elementary school students anxiety level’ Counselor Education Capstone. 38. Available at http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/ede_capstone138 (Downloaded: 17 November 2018).

Sherman, J. (2017) Mindfulness: action research examining the effectiveness of mindfulness in a Montessori Small-group intervention setting. A Master’s Paper. Available at http://minds.wisconsin.edu>handle>s (Downloaded: 20 October 2018).

Intervention (first session)

On September 14, 2018, I arrived at the school with all research materials at 1 pm. I met with Miss Chanan and her assistant who was a teacher assigned to help me. She gave me back thirteen copies of consent form with signatures of participating students.Because of some circumstances, three of them was able to participate only in the first day intervention.  So, only answers of the ten students who participated in all phases of intervention were mentioned in the journal.

The test took place in their class room where there were boys of 14-16 years of age. Both Miss Chanan and her assistant were in the room with me for a while and introduced me to students before leaving. She told me before all students that all were volunteers and were willing to hear classical music to which they never listened before in their lives. I was attracted by the way Miss Chanan recruited these students. It seemed that all of them loved music and were prepared to embrace music.

Pracharaj Bampen School

Miss Chanan ,Deputy Director

these students were very cooperative that would allow the intervention to go on quite smoothly .I talked to students who I was and how all phases of the intervention were processing. The room was hot and there were noise from outside.

The first task of this day was to conduct a pre-intervention test. The purpose of this test was to know how students were anxious before the intervention.

The tool was the Anxiety Test (ST-S) provided by the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The Test was used in the previous intervention. I found that its questions could not gauge the present conditions of students’ anxiety. So, It was modified for use in the research context. The Test as modified included four questions that would gauge students’ anxiety of class: do you feel you are

(1) less concentrated?

(2) moody and anxious?

(3) bored?

(4) unwilling to communicate with people?

In answering each question, students would rate their own feeling 0-3 as score 0 = no; 1 = slightly; 2 = reasonably; and 3 = really.

Then the total scores of answers to questions (1), (2), (3), and (4) were interpreted: total scores

0 = no stress;

1-3 = mild degree stress;

4-6 = moderate stress;

7-9 = most stress; and

10-12 = serious stress.

After completion of the pre-intervention test, I began the classical music listening session by explaining how to listen to music of this type to participating students. I told them to close their eyes and to imagine as if they were in bed room comfortably and then I turn on the music instrument. The first part of the session took ten minutes. After the music ended, I told them to open their eyes.

Then, I requested them to write what they saw in their imagination in the sheets of paper provided. I told them that they could write anything that were in their imagination and that they could write freely. I also told them that if they were unwilling to write anything, they could do so.

The feedback after interviewed

All participating students were cooperative. They carefully answered each question.

1. Omo / 2

In the first day in-depth interview, Omo told me that he felt very enjoyable when hearing music of this type. He felt he was stressed. What he was worried about was his class. Always, he was bullied by friends and he fight back. The way to relax his stress was to talk with his friends. He thought this intervention could reasonably relax his stress and he was willing to participate in an activity like this if one was held. With regarding to the type of music used, he was willing to have the music change.

2. Ball / 4

Ball told me that when he heard music, he felt as if he had a good dream. He felt he was stressed. Frequently, he was bullied by friends and he fight back. The way to relax his stress was to watch TV, to hear music, and to enjoyably eat KFC. He believed this intervention could relax his stress. He was willing to participate in any enjoyable activity like this intervention.

3. Pai / 0

Pai told me that he felt very relaxed when hearing music of this type. He was sometime worried about his homework. The way to relax his stress was to talk with friends. For him, the intervention was very useful and if there was one more to be held he was willing to participate in it.

4. Hoke / 3

Hoke told me he felt pleasant and sleep when hearing music of this type. He was sometime stressed due to his failure to submit his homework. Whenever he was stressed, he walked around the school building. He thought the intervention was helpful in relaxing his stress and he was willing to participate in an enjoyable activity like this intervention.

5. Dan / 4

Dan told me he felt comfortable and happy when hearing music. He hoped to have an opportunity to join a similar event one day. Sometime, he was stressed. What he was worried about was his homework. When he was stressed, he heard his favorite songs (pop songs). He was willing to participate in an activity like this if he had an opportunity. He thought this intervention could relax his stress to some extent.

6. Man /8

Man told me that he was so enchanted by music hearing that he felt he was half-asleep. He was always stressed. The way to relax his stress was to sleep. Usually, He did not listen to music of any types. He felt the music heard today made him more relaxed. Although he was not acquainted with any types of music, he was willing to hear the music of this type again if an opportunity available.

7. Song /2

Song told me that he felt very comfortable and pleasant when hearing music. He was rarely stressed. When he was stressed, he just relaxed it by playing sport and letting it go. He thought the intervention could help relax stress. He was willing to participate in a music hearing activity like this if he head an opportunity to do so.

8. Woody  /2

Woody told me that he was very happy when hearing music although it was the first time in his life to hear the music of this type. He was rarely

stressed. He was never worried about his class. What he was worried about was his friends’ behaviors. Frequently, he was bullied and he had to fight back. Apart from fighting back, he relaxed his stress by hearing music of any types. He thought the intervention was useful and he was willing to have an opportunity to join an enjoyable activity like this.

9. Tee /2

Tee told me that he felt an if he slept comfortably and pleasantly when hearing music. He was slightly worried about math class. When he was stressed, he heard music of any types. He thought the intervention could relax stress. Since he loved music of any types, I was willing to join any enjoyable event like this intervention.

10. Tua /1

Tua was in the National youth table tennis player of Thailand. As a sportsman, he looked healthy and optimistic. He told me he felt very enjoyable when hearing music. He told me that he rarely feel stressed even though he didn’t do well on exam. If he was, he relaxed it just by hearing music. He hoped to have an opportunity to join an activity like this again. He believed the intervention could somehow reduce stress.

limitations

  • The room was quite hot and there were noise from outside which was a bit disruptive to the process as they couldn’t hear the music clearly.

 

 

 

 

Synopsis on next intervention

Experiences from the previous intervention taking place at Kovittharong school on August 31,2018 and the discussions with experts and stakeholders suggested me to read more about research on music therapy and music for well-being.

Firstly, I looked at my previous research topic proposed : How can music support generation Z in managing pressure of school? Discussion with experts suggested me that this topic be narrowed down focusing on music for well-being instead of music therapy.

My research and intervention hopefully would benefit Thai secondary school students who had some class difficulty and hence needed some professional help. Additionally, this research could be utilized by school teachers and administrators without any difficulty because the professional help proposed in the research was not medical and paramedical practice known as music therapy.

Contacting stakeholder

On September 11, 2018, I submitted a formal letter to the school director seeking cooperation. I provided a number of copies of consent form to be signed by parents of participating students. In the form, I stated clearly what I was doing and also stated that all parts of information of the research were kept confidential.

Miss Chanan called me up in the afternoon saying everything had been arranged. The intervention was planned to conducted on Friday 14, Monday 17, and Friday 21 of the month. She also told me that she assigned her assistant who was a teacher to help me in all phases of the intervention. As I had to complete the intervention as soon as possible, it seemed that the three sessions of classical music listening conducted over a time span of eight days would be reasonably appropriate.

Contacting gate keeper for next intervention and Preparation

The previous intervention, taking place at Kovitthamrong School on August 31, 2018, suggested me to find stakeholders who needed some professional help and old enough to evaluate their anxiety. On September 10, 2018, I had an opportunity to meet with Miss Chanan Thongsookmak who is a deputy director of Pracharaj Bumpen school which is in my neighborhood. It is a public school where students mostly come from working class family which is different from previous school that i took test.

I told her that I was doing a research topic: “how can classical music support GenereationZ in managing pressures of school “? I was willing to conduct an intervention at her school. She told me that it was the school policy to support any educational activities that would be beneficial to school students like this and that she was willing to help me in providing students to participate in the intervention.

I also told Miss Chanan that these students would be those with GPA (Grade Point Average)below 2.5 who evidently needed some professional help and would be grade 9 students who were old enough to evaluate their anxiety.

I also told Miss Chanan that I would like to have somebody observe behaviors indicating class anxiety of these students after the day of intervention and reported to me. She agreed to help me.

 

 

Response from experts

Finally , i got the feedback from an expert of music therapy,Ajarn Na. He is a music therapist in Thailand

I told him about my project and ask him if he could collaborate with me .  He told me that he didn’t not directly trained for Bonny GIM and he didn’t know anyone in Thailand that has trained directly in GIM but he can give me some comments and feedback about my work. He also said that in order to collaborate with music therapist to conduct GIM , the therapist must have an approved from GIM association to be able to conduct an intervention otherwise there will be problems for the research and practitioner. So, i asked him that what if my idea is to apply my own modified version of GIM  in class room not to facilitate the full version of GIM, would it be possible for me(as one who’s not directly trained GIM) to conduct the intervention. He answered ” yes, it would be possible but you must state clearly that this is a modified version of GIM and also have to understand throughly about ethical consideration and professional boundaries of Music therapy”.

He also kind enough to send me his article about Continuum of music of health and well-being to allow me to understand more about professional boundaries.

 

,

Ajarn Na sent me an article that  is related to ethical considerations in my project . it explained the process of continuum of Music of health and well-being . So, if i choose to focus on Music for well-being in everyday life instead of focusing on Music therapy , i might be able to avoid having problems with ethical conflicts.  This also similar to what Richie have told me that if i don’t have a therapist or therapists to collaborate with me i should avoid the words “therapy” in my question. therefore, according to the article , music engagement is categorized as Music for well-being in everyday life which is similar to what i have done with my intervention as i don’t focus on diagnosed but more likely on experience to upgrade emotional level.

https://www.facebook.com/ThaiMusicTherapy/?fb_dtsg_ag=AdyCvlXtXJnlvzig7aPkiIWAdxVygGSsIGa8wFH4RMZO-g%3AAdzkqmzHZiGMurcyA0apP6wHXDPUpzZgYAwEGtA5Zk4kbA

Apart from Ajarn Na, i tried to contact Teacher Nahm to ask him to be my expert and collaborate with me . He told me that he’s not really used to GIM method but he would love to talk to me in a person on this Thursday to give me some feedbacks and the possibilities of collaboration.

 

https://www.facebook.com/H2O-Music-School-769352859748736/

Contacting stakeholders

Mr. Veera Khaengkasikarn the Deputy permanent secretary of Regional Education  of Office No.2 ,Ministry of education

He is the gatekeeper who can give me an access to schools in Thailand . I went to meet him at Ministry of Education to talk about my project . he seemed very interested in using music to help children in schools . He also said that still there are very few of music therapists who works in Thailand which should be beneficial for students who struggling in schools as it’s something new for them.  So, if i wanted to get into population like problem children he is willing to help me gaining an access.

 

Chidchong   Nuntananet , Assistant Professor of Silpakorn University(retired)

As i’m having some confusion with my intervention whether method that i should use to conduct my next intervention.She offered me of choices of how to set up my research on next intervention .First, only using qualitative research might not be enough so she suggested me to look in to the Anxiety Test(ST5) from Department of Mental Health of Thailand to help measure the change in stress level.

She also suggested that it would be interesting if i conduct an experiment with problem students(low GPA) as it might be able to see a clearer result which i think it’s totally true as i didn’t see the significant change in the normal students when i conducted an intervention. Therefore, i can compare and contrast with normal students and problems students . Or else, i could just focus on only the problem students and conduct the intervention continuously to see  the change.

 

Somporn  Warnset , Director of Special Education Center

was recommended by Mr.Veera that i should get to meet her.  she is also the gatekeeper who can access to music therapists as she used to work with therapist to help children with special needs. She recommended me to contact one her collaborator to help with my project.

She has suggestions for my intervention similar to Misses Chidchong that i should use problems students as my target audiences . There was a reminder from her that some of problems children might not fully willing to cooperate with me and i have to be able to handle these kids for the whole hour.